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Auto Electronics Knowledge: Automotive Main Domain Controller

BOSCH divides the evolution of automotive electronic and electrical architecture into three major stages: distributed architecture, (cross-)domain centralized architecture, and vehicle centralized electronic and electrical architecture. Each large stage is subdivided into two small stages, from low-level to high-level. The order is: modularization (each function is implemented by an independent ECU), integration (different functions are integrated into one ECU to implement), intra-domain concentration (domain controllers control different domains respectively), cross-domain integration (cross-domain integration) Domain controller controls multiple domains at the same time), vehicle integration (a vehicle-mounted central computer controls the domain controller of the entire vehicle), and vehicle cloud computing (more additional vehicle functions are implemented by cloud computing).

The so-called "domain" is a collection of electronic and electrical architecture that controls a certain large functional module of the car. Each domain is uniformly controlled by a domain controller. The most typical division method is to divide the electronic and electrical architecture of the entire vehicle into five Domains: power domain, body domain, chassis domain, cockpit domain and autonomous driving domain. The specific division of labor is as follows:

Power Domain Controller


It mainly controls the vehicle's powertrain, optimizes the vehicle's power performance, and ensures the vehicle's power safety. The functions of the power domain controller include but are not limited to engine management, gearbox management, battery management, power distribution management, emission management, speed limit management, fuel and electricity saving management, etc.;


Body Domain Controller


Mainly controls various body functions, including but not limited to control of headlights, rear lights, interior lights, door locks, windows, sunroofs, wipers, electric trunks, smart keys, air conditioners, antennas, gateway communications, etc. .


Chassis Domain Controller


It mainly controls the driving behavior and driving posture of the vehicle. Its functions include but are not limited to braking system management, vehicle transmission system management, driving system management, steering system management, vehicle speed sensor management, body posture sensor management, air suspension system management, and airbags. System management, etc.;


Cockpit Domain Controller


It mainly controls various electronic information system functions in the vehicle's smart cockpit. These functions include central control system, in-vehicle infotainment system, head-up display, seat system, instrument system, rearview mirror system, driving behavior monitoring system, navigation system, etc. ;


Autonomous Driving Domain Controller


Responsible for realizing and controlling the automatic driving function of the car, it needs to have the ability to receive image information, process and judge image information, process and calculate data, navigate and route planning capabilities, and quickly judge real-time situations. Decision-making capabilities require algorithms that handle three levels of perception, decision-making, and control, and have the highest software and hardware requirements for domain controllers.


Different domain controller products have different technical requirements. For autonomous driving and cockpit domain controllers, chip performance and operating system-level algorithm requirements are relatively high; for the power domain, chassis domain, and autonomous driving domain, there are many safety-related components, so the functional safety level requirements are high.


At present, the electronic and electrical architecture upgrades of automobile manufacturers are still in the domain-centralized architecture stage, and a few leading automobile manufacturers have developed to the cross-domain integration stage:

Volkswagen: The MEB platform uses three major controllers to control and realize functions of the entire vehicle:


ICAS1 vehicle control domain controller integrates many functions such as body control management, drive system management, driving system management, electric system management, lighting system management, comfort system management, etc., integrating the body domain, power domain, and chassis domain;


ICAS2 intelligent driving domain controller implements automatic driving functions, has powerful information processing and computing capabilities, and is closely connected with multiple sensors;


ICAS3 smart cockpit domain controller includes the hardware and software required to implement various functions such as central control system, vehicle infotainment system, head-up display, seat system, instrument system, rearview mirror system, driving behavior monitoring system, navigation system, etc. software. Currently, ID. series models based on the MEB platform can update up to 35 control units through OTA.


Tesla: It is the leader in upgrading automotive electronic and electrical architecture. It was the first to enter the cross-domain integration stage. The electronic and electrical architecture of Model 3 is basically not divided into domains according to functions. The entire vehicle only has the CCM central computing module and the BCM RH right Three domain controllers: body control module, BCM LH left body control module. The CCM central computing module integrates the functions of the autonomous driving domain, intelligent cockpit domain, and communication system domain, integrating the three for unified centralized computing processing and control. The left and right body modules divide and integrate different functional areas of the body by area. The two control the power system, steering system, braking system, etc. of the left and right body areas respectively, and at the same time control and manage various body functions. , including but not limited to thermal management, automatic parking assistance systems, lighting systems, door lock systems, window systems, etc.

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